# Financial Functions

DB | DDB | FV | NPER | PMT | PV | SLN | SYD

DB
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method.

### Syntax:

`DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)`

cost is the initial cost of the asset.
salvage is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).
life is the number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).
period is the period for which you want to calculate the depreciation. Period must use the same units as life.
month is the number of months in the first year. If month is omitted, it is assumed to be 12.

### Example:

```db(1000000, 100000, 6, 7, 7) equals 15845.098473848071 ```
DDB
Returns a number specifying the depreciation of an asset for a specific time period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify.

The double-declining balance method computes depreciation at an accelerated rate. Depreciation is highest in the first period and decreases in successive periods.

The life and period arguments must be expressed in the same units. For example, if life is given in months, period must also be given in months. All arguments must be positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`DDB(cost,salvage,life,period,factor)`

cost is a number specifying initial cost of the asset.
salvage is a number specifying value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
life is a number specifying length of useful life of the asset.
period is a number specifying period for which asset depreciation is calculated.
factor is an optional number specifying rate at which the balance declines. If omitted, 2 (double-declining method) is assumed.

### Example:

```ddb(1000, 100, 3, 2, 3) equals 0.0 ```
FV
Returns a number specifying the future value of an annuity based on
periodic, fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over a period of time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

The rate and nper arguments must be calculated using payment periods expressed in the same units. For example, if rate is calculated using months, nper must also be calculated using months.

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,due)`

rate is a number specifying interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.
nper is Integer specifying total number of payment periods in the annuity. For example, if you make monthly payments on a four-year car loan, your loan has a total of 4 * 12 (or 48) payment periods.
pmt is a number specifying payment to be made each period. Payments usually contain principal and interest that doesn't change over the life of the annuity.
pv is an optional number specifying present value (or lump sum) of a series of future payments. For example, when you borrow money to buy a car, the loan amount is the present value to the lender of the monthly car payments you will make. If omitted, 0 is assumed.
due is an optional integer specifying when payments are due. Use 0 if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or use 1 if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

### Example:

```fv(0.01, 140, 200, 500000) equals -2074091.5927014677 ```
NPER
Returns a number specifying the number of periods for an annuity
based on periodic, fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over a period of time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, due)`

rate is a number specifying interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.
pmt is a number specifying payment to be made each period. Payments usually contain principal and interest that doesn't change over the life of the annuity.
pv is a number specifying present value, or value today, of a series of future payments or receipts. For example, when you borrow money to buy a car, the loan amount is the present value to the lender of the monthly car payments you will make.
fv is an optional number specifying future value or cash balance you want after you've made the final payment. For example, the future value of a loan is \$0 because that's its value after the final payment. However, if you want to save \$50,000 over 18 years for your child's education, then \$50,000 is the future value. If omitted, 0 is assumed.
due is an optional integer specifying when payments are due. Use 0 if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or use 1 if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

### Example:

```nper(0.01, -100, -1000, 10000, 1) equals 59.67386567429457 ```
PMT
Returns a number specifying the payment for an annuity based on
periodic, fixed payments and a fixed interest rate.

An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over a period of time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

The rate and nper arguments must be calculated using payment periods expressed in the same units. For example, if rate is calculated using months, nper must also be calculated using months.

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`PMT(rate, nper, pv, fv, due)`

rate is a number specifying interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.
nper is Integer specifying total number of payment periods in the annuity. For example, if you make monthly payments on a four-year car loan, your loan has a total of 4 * 12 (or 48) payment periods.
pv is a number specifying present value (or lump sum) that a series of payments to be paid in the future is worth now. For example, when you borrow money to buy a car, the loan amount is the present value to the lender of the monthly car payments you will make.
fv is an optional number specifying future value or cash balance you want after you've made the final payment. For example, the future value of a loan is \$0 because that's its value after the final payment. However, if you want to save \$50,000 over 18 years for your child's education, then \$50,000 is the future value. If omitted, 0 is assumed.
due is an optional integer specifying when payments are due. Use 0 if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or use 1 if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

### Example:

```pmt(0.05 / 12, 12, 12000, 7000) equals -1597.375487314215 ```
PV
Returns a number specifying the present value of an annuity based on
periodic, fixed payments to be paid in the future and a fixed interest rate.

An annuity is a series of fixed cash payments made over a period of time. An annuity can be a loan (such as a home mortgage) or an investment (such as a monthly savings plan).

The rate and nper arguments must be calculated using payment periods expressed in the same units. For example, if rate is calculated using months, nper must also be calculated using months.

For all arguments, cash paid out (such as deposits to savings) is represented by negative numbers; cash received (such as dividend checks) is represented by positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`PV(rate, nper, pmt, fv, due)`

rate is a number specifying interest rate per period. For example, if you get a car loan at an annual percentage rate (APR) of 10 percent and make monthly payments, the rate per period is 0.1/12, or 0.0083.
nper is Integer specifying total number of payment periods in the annuity. For example, if you make monthly payments on a four-year car loan, your loan has a total of 4 * 12 (or 48) payment periods.
pmt is a number specifying payment to be made each period. Payments usually contain principal and interest that doesn't change over the life of the annuity.
fv is an optional number specifying future value or cash balance you want after you've made the final payment. For example, the future value of a loan is \$0 because that's its value after the final payment. However, if you want to save \$50,000 over 18 years for your child's education, then \$50,000 is the future value. If omitted, 0 is assumed.
due is an optional integer specifying when payments are due. Use 0 if payments are due at the end of the payment period, or use 1 if payments are due at the beginning of the period. If omitted, 0 is assumed.

### Example:

```pv(0.01, 140, 200, 500000) equals -139192.4941917203 ```
SLN
Returns a number specifying the straight-line depreciation of an asset for a single period.

The depreciation period must be expressed in the same unit as the life argument. All arguments must be positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`SLN(cost,salvage,life)`

cost is a number specifying initial cost of the asset.
salvage is a number specifying value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
life is a number specifying length of the useful life of the asset.

### Example:

```sln(1000, 100, 3) equals 300.0 ```
SYD
Returns a number specifying the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period.

The life and period arguments must be expressed in the same units. For example, if life is given in months, period must also be given in months. All arguments must be positive numbers.

### Syntax:

`SYD(cost,salvage,life,period)`

cost is a number specifying initial cost of the asset.
salvage is a number specifying value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
life is a number specifying length of the useful life of the asset.
period is a number specifying period for which asset depreciation is calculated.

### Example:

```syd(1000, 100, 3, 1) equals 450.0 ```